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For the purposes of treatment, lung cancer is classified as non–small cell, which accounts for approximately 85% of cases, or as small cell, representing 14% of cases.1 Non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide.2 The greatest risk factor for lung cancer is cigarette smoking. Other risk factors include smoking pipes or cigars and exposure to agents such as radon gas, secondhand smoke, asbes­tos, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, some organic chemicals, radiation, and air pollution.

Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, is a compelling, independent risk factor for stroke. In fact, AF is associated with a 5-fold increased risk for stroke.1,2 An estimated 15% to 20% of ischemic strokes are caused by AF.2 Aside from its link to stroke, AF is associated with an increased risk of mortality as well as increased risks of morbidity, heart failure, and cognitive impairment. Given that AF is often asymptomatic and may go undetected clinically, its impact may be underestimated.1

Overweight and obesity are major health concerns in the United States and worldwide, and they are associated with increased health risks.

In 2011, the American Cancer Society projected there would be 20,520 cases of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) and 10,610 deaths from the disease that year.1 MM is an incurable hematologic cancer marked by great heterogeneity, in terms of its biology and clinical course. Morbidity and survival rates vary widely, even in the age of novel, molecularly based targeted therapies. Many factors account for differences in prognoses among patients with MM, including genomic aberrations in the plasma cells of the myeloma neoplasm.

Multiple myeloma (MM), a clonal malignancy of plasma cells, is responsible for 10% to 15% of all hematologic malignancies and for 20% of deaths resulting from hematologic cancers.1,2 In most patients, MM evolves from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), an asymptomatic plasma-cell disorder.

Early type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired insulin action known as insulin resistance, which is manifested by overproduction of glucose as the ability of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production is reduced. As the need for insulin increases, insulin production by the pancreas is impaired, and pancreatic beta-cell mass and function decline and worsen progressively. When combined with an excessive rate of hepatic glucose production and a decrease in glucose uptake in the muscle, the progressive decline in insulin secretion leads to hyperglycemia.

Constipation is the most common gastrointestinal (GI) complaint in the United States, affecting between 2% and 28% of the population.1 Although it is usually relatively benign, the condition can be serious and can negatively affect a patient’s quality of life, as well as the ability to perform daily activities and overall work productivity.2

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide.1 In the United States, an estimated 39,500 women died of breast cancer in 2011.2

Leukemias are cancers involving the bone marrow and blood, and they account for approximately 4% of cancer deaths.1 The majority of leukemias occur in adults aged >20 years, and the incidence is higher in men than in women. Leukemias are classified by the type of cell involved (ie, lymphocytic or myeloid) and the rate of progression (ie, acute or chronic). Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) account for approximately 2.5% and 6%, respectively, of deaths resulting from leukemia.1

Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States.1 Obesity, which is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of ≥30 kg/m2, affects an estimated 78.1 million Americans—more than 35% of all men and women.2,3 Moreover, more than 34% of adults aged ≥20 years are overweight, which is defined as a BMI of ≥25 kg/m2.3

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  •  Association for Value-Based Cancer Care
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  • Rheumatology Practice Management
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