The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines and 2004 update stress the importance of achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals in patients with dyslipidemia.1,2 Patients at higher coronary heart disease (CHD) risk have lower LDL-C goals and require more aggressive lipid-modifying therapy to achieve these goals than patients at lower CHD risk.

Appropriate Medication Selection Key to Cost-Effective Therapy, Patient Adherence

Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy has emerged as a major advancement in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The anti-TNF agents adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab are often used with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as methotrexate, and have been shown in clinical trials to be effective in reducing the signs and symptoms of RA and in preventing the progression of joint damage.1-6

Effectiveness of Anti-TNFs in Patients with RA, and Coverage Considerations

"Comparative effectiveness" research is the best tool available today for making decisions about which new medication, medical device, or diagnostic test is most supported by the evidence.1 The purpose of a systematic review is to synthesize the results of multiple primary studies using explicit and reproducible methods.2,3 Meta-analysis is a form of systematic review that goes one step further.

Meta-Analyses and Patient Care

Among adults responding to the 2006 National Health Interview Survey, 11% reported having feelings of sadness during all, most, or some of the time in the 30 days before the interview; 6% reported feeling hopeless; 5% felt worthless; and 14% felt that everything was an effort.1 Women were more likely to report such symptoms than men (13% vs 9%, respectively). Non-Hispanic black adults and Hispanic adults were more likely to report feelings of sadness or hopelessness than non-Hispanic white adults.

Schizophrenia is a poorly understood condition. Despite several recent documentaries and movies depicting the course and disability of this illness, the lay public remains largely confused about schizophrenia and continues to harbor notions that it is a "split personality" or a "Jekyll and Hyde" phenomenon. Regrettably, efforts to articulate a clear account of what schizophrenia really is and what causes it have been hampered by a lack of compelling evidence as to its etiology.

Opioid-related respiratory depression can have tragic consequences. Failure to detect a patient's declining respiratory status before progression to respiratory depression can lead to unwarranted outcomes and possible need for critical care.1 Concerns about respiratory depression can also prevent clinicians from adequately treating postoperative pain.2 Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is widely used for postoperative opioid administration, because of its considerable potential to improve pain management by enabling patient control of dosing frequency.

Capnography in Procedural Anesthesia: At the Edge of a "Perfect Storm"

The current explosion in the science that supports discovery platforms and clinical development activities places a particular emphasis on the importance of integrating knowledge across a spectrum of interests and perspectives extending from the laboratory to the pharmacy. These efforts are driven by the increases in prevalence of chronic illnesses, the associated direct and indirect costs, and, for some indications, the rapid infusion/diffusion of innovative therapy into practice.

AHDB Stakeholder Perspective

Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality

AHDB Stakeholder Perspective

Although improving survival remains a key target for much of drug development, finding new treatments that improve how the patient feels or functions is an increasingly important goal. Even treatments that improve survival may be differentiated by how much they improve functionality or health-related quality of life (HRQOL), or may be of limited value if they significantly diminish either one. Thus, these outcomes can be an important gauge of the role of new medicines in the treatment process for many diseases and patients.

AHDB Stakeholder Perspective

Warfarin, which has been in use for more than 50 years, has received considerable attention because of its common use for several indications and the link to adverse events, some lifethreatening, which require close monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR). The drug is undoubtedly effective, but has a narrow therapeutic index. In a 12-month observational study of 25 nursing homes, one sixth of the approximate 3000 residents received warfarin, which resulted in 720 adverse events1; many of the events were preventable, raising safety concerns.1

Benefits of Genetic Testing in Warfarin Therapy
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